Waste management are multidisciplinary activities that involve engineering fundamentals, economic, urban and regional planning, management techniques and social sciences to minimize the overall loss of the system in question. A systematic approach to waste management should be adopted, covering waste of all types of resources at all stages. However, the material accounts for the major part of the total production costs, the wasted material is of crucial importance (Arora, 2004).
Waste is one of the most undesirable materials under the Environmental Protection Act 1990. Waste includes any waste material, effluent or additional undesirable material or item that requires disposal because it is damaged, worn out, contaminated or otherwise contaminated. Waste is “those substances or objects that are outside the economic cycle or the supply chain”, such as e.g. B. Glass bottles returned or reused in their original form are not waste, while glass bottles stored by the public and sent for recycling are waste. until they are restored". The Department of the Environment has identified four broad categories of potential waste. First of all, they are worn but functional fabrics or objects that (albeit after repair) can still be used for their intended purpose. Second, substances or objects that can be used immediately, except by an establishment or company specializing in waste recycling, e.g. B. Ash from a power plant, which is used as a raw material for building blocks. The third category are degenerate substances or objects that can only be used by establishments or companies specialized in the recycling of waste. These are always waste, even if they are recycled, such as contaminated solvents or scrap metal. These substances are not waste until they are evaluated. Fourth, they are substances that the owner does not want and must pay to have removed.
Rapid economic development has increased the living standards of people around the world. This led directly to greater material consumption and more waste production. Solid wastes mainly generated in urban areas are as follows.
- organic waste
- plastic trash
- Metal falls
- scrap glass
- waste paper and
- Others (ash, sand, sand, etc.)
types of waste
Organizations can dispose of items with significant residual value, from manufacturing waste to obsolete plant and equipment that may legally be considered waste. Certain wastes are classified as hazardous. There are a variety of substances that can present different levels of risk. For example, toxic substances that can cause cancer are considered dangerous. Fluorescent lights or cathode ray tubes in televisions are also dangerous and pose little immediate threat but can cause long-term damage over a period of time. The Environment Agency recognizes as waste any material or object that has not been used, must be discarded or is intended to be discarded.
Waste Classification Table (Source: EAUC)
E-Waste: A term that refers to obsolete materials or irreparable electronic equipment such as cell phones, televisions, printers and computers. Toxins in junk mail are shown in the figure below:
Characteristics of waste generation:
The waste management process is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. The term is usually associated with materials produced by human activities and are widely believed to reduce their impact on health and the environment. Waste management is also practiced in order to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive materials, each with different methods and areas of expertise. Reports have shown that waste management practices differ in developed and developing countries, in urban and rural areas, and among residential and industrial producers. Disposal of non-hazardous household and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is generally the responsibility of local government agencies, while disposal of non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is generally the responsibility of the producer.
An efficient waste management system can help ensure the many interconnected systems a facility depends on are functioning properly for waste containment, leachate management, and other important functions. If the components of an entire waste management system are not frequently reviewed, maintained, improved, and evaluated for effectiveness, even the best designed unit may not function with resources. Good implementation of the waste management system can also reduce short- and long-term costs, protect workers and local communities, and maintain good community relations. The success of the waste management system also requires that procedures are in place to monitor performance and identify improvements against clearly articulated and easily understood environmental objectives.
The main goal of waste management is the reduction of waste and thus the goal of the ideal system. While resource management aims to maximize resource utilization. The goal of waste and resource management is the same as making the best use of available resources to increase efficiency and system growth, but the approaches are different (Arora, 2004).
To achieve this goal it is important:
- avoid waste generation
- Encourage waste reuse.
- Promotion of biological waste utilization and material recycling
- Promotion of the energetic use of waste that is not suitable for recycling.
- Ensure that waste treatment and disposal has no harmful effects.
Management literature states that resource and waste management complement each other.
Figure: Relationship between resource management and waste (Source: Arora, 2004). :
In the field of waste management, a new concept of wastivity is proposed. It can serve as a reasonable measure of the performance of any system. The water loss of a system is defined as the ratio of outflow to inflow.
Depending on the amount of the consideration, the damage can be divided into gross damage and net damage. Many studies indicate that waste can serve indirectly as a measure of productivity (Arora, 2004).
Waste management has become a complex area on legal, technical and economic terrain. Few organizations can rely on waste collection services provided by local authorities as a solution to their waste management obligations. As a result, many companies need to identify and engage one or more accredited and authorized specialist companies to dispose of their waste or to meet their legal obligations. The main development in the field of waste management is to focus on avoiding waste generation through waste minimization and reusing waste materials through recycling. This ties directly to purchasing issues, where careful selection of materials and suppliers, redesigning processes for dismantling and reverse logistics can reduce the amount of waste generated or facilitate recycling and reuse. Businesses must implement an effective waste management process to achieve good financial returns. Efficient waste management includes the rapid identification of waste generated, cost-effective reduction, efficient collection and handling, optimal destination and recycling, and effective disposal of waste that does not cause environmental problems. Waste management can be divided into five elements, which include generation, reduction, collection, recycling and disposal (Arora, 2004).
The waste management hierarchy emphasizes the need to reduce the amount of waste generated, reuse the waste, recover it (through recycling, composting or incinerators) and finally, as a last resort, send waste to landfill. .
The waste management hierarchy
Waste Minimization Techniques: An efficient way to manage waste is not to produce it in the first place, and this is the driving force behind the waste minimization proposal.
waste minimization techniques
Types of garbage disposal:There are eight main groups of waste management practices.
Landfill:Sanitary landfill is now an effective method of waste disposal. This waste disposal process focuses on burying the waste in the ground. Sanitary dumps can be found in all areas. A process is used that reduces the odors and hazards of the waste before it is placed in the ground. While this is the most popular form of debris removal, it is certainly far from the only procedure and can involve a variety of spaces as well. In landfill operations, garbage trucks are weighed at the entrance and their loads are checked for debris. Then these vehicles drop their cargo. After unloading the loads, compactors or bulldozers distribute and compact the waste around the job site. This flattened debris is covered with earth every day.
Combustion:Incineration, also known as incineration, is also an important disposal method, in which municipal solid waste is burned at high temperatures to convert it into waste and gaseous products. The main advantage of this type of process is that it can reduce the volume of solid waste by 20-30% of the original volume, reduce space requirements and reduce landfill pressure. This process is also known as heat treatment, where incinerators convert solid waste into heat, gas, steam and ash.
Recreation:Resource recovery is the method of collecting leftover useful items for later use. These discarded items are then processed to extract or reclaim materials and resources, or convert them to energy in the form of usable heat, electricity, or fuel.
Recycling:Recycling is also an effective waste management process. It is the collection and use of unwanted materials as raw materials in the manufacture of new products. It is the process of transforming waste products into new products, avoiding energy consumption and using fresh raw materials. Recycling is the third component of the Reduce, Reuse and Recycle waste hierarchy. The main principle of recycling is to reduce energy consumption, reduce landfill volume, reduce air and water pollution, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conserve natural resources for future use.
Plasmavergasung:Plasma gasification is one of the types of waste management. Plasma is primarily an electrically charged or highly ionized gas. In the plasma gasification process, matter is gasified in a low-oxygen environment to break down waste materials into their basic molecular structure. Does not burn waste like incinerators. Power is fed to a torch, which has two electrodes and creates an arc. A constant current flow through the plasma maintains an extremely intense energy field strong enough to break garbage down into its component parts. The lighting is a type of plasma that produces temperatures in excess of 12,600°F. In this waste disposal process, a ship uses plasma torches that operate at +10,000°F and create a gasification zone of up to 3,000°F to convert solid or liquid waste into syngas. The molecular forms of the waste are formed during the treatment of solid waste by plasma gasification. This type of waste disposal provides renewable and beneficial energy for humans. Municipal waste is considered a renewable energy source and plasma gasification technology is one of the main technologies available to harness this energy (Pourali, 2010). Municipal Solid Waste is a source that is never sufficient and is rapidly increasing in Indian states like Madhya Pradesh, India and hence plasma gasification can be effective as a sustainable energy source and eco-friendly solution for municipal solid waste disposal in this state.
composting:Composting is a natural waste management process. In this method, food scraps, yard waste, and other organic materials are collected and broken down under controlled conditions into a rich earth-like substance called compost. Composting is a simple and natural biodegradation method that converts organic waste, such as plant, kitchen and garden waste, into nutrient-rich plant food. Commonly used for organic farming, compost is made by leaving organic materials in one place for months until they are broken down by microbes. It is considered the best waste disposal method because of its ability to convert hazardous organic matter into safe compost.
Waste to Energy (Energierückgewinnung):In the waste-to-energy process, non-recyclable waste materials are converted into usable heat, electricity or fuel through a variety of processes. This type of energy source is a renewable energy source because non-recyclable waste can be used to generate energy over and over again. It can also help reduce CO2 emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources.
Avoid/minimize waste:The simple way to manage waste is to reduce the generation of waste materials and thereby reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. Waste reduction can be achieved by recycling old materials like pots and bags, repairing broken items instead of buying new ones, avoiding the use of single-use products like plastic bags, reusing used items, and buying items with less design.
Recycling and composting are considered effective methods of waste management. To date, composting has only been possible on a small scale, either by private individuals or in areas where waste can be mixed with farmland or used for landscaping. Recycling is widespread around the world.
Biorecycling: Common consumer products that are recycled include aluminum beverage cans, steel food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, cartons, newspapers, magazines and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP and PS) can also be recycled, but are not collected as usual. These items are typically made from only one type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. Recycling complex products (e.g. computers and electronics) is more complex due to the additional dismantling and sorting required. There are various methods and technologies of composting and digestion ranging in complexity from simple home compost heaps to industrial scale digestion of mixed household waste in closed bins. Biological degradation processes are divided into aerobic and aerobic processes, although there are also mixed forms of both processes.
The bottom line:In the waste category, some items or waste that cannot be disposed of without special treatment to avoid contamination. Biomedical waste is an example. These can be found in health centers and similar institutions.
Waste management from an Indian perspective:India is considered to be the second most populous country in the world, India constantly accumulates garbage at its physical borders. In densely populated urban areas, land is limited for proper waste treatment, disposal, and management. Recent and ongoing economic growth, raising people's living standards, increase in manufacturing and production activities has led to an increase in the rate of waste generation. Statistical reports show that India produces approximately 42 million tons of solid waste per year. In India, the main problem of waste management is the lack of a systematic assessment of waste quality and contamination potential. Initial data was collected from the Department of Environment and Forestry, the Environmental Protection Agency and an institution such as NEERI and the National Productivity Board. These data showed that the practices of disposal methods are not compatible for waste management (Arora, 2004).
Benefits of waste management:The benefits of waste management are many, both for the environment and for people.
Waste removal has become a business and has numerous functions including waste removal. Organic waste is separated from non-recyclable and inorganic. This allowed Metropolis to use organic waste to make compost for public spaces. There are even some cities that package and sell the compost to make money. These items can be refurbished and recycled and used to create new products. This technique helps reduce additional consumption of natural resources while reducing the need for final waste disposal.
Another benefit of waste management is that it benefits health. In the past, burning garbage at the landfill or in the backyard was common. However, health organizations are pressuring local authorities that this type of practice is harmful. When trash and plastics are incinerated, particles are created that are solid compounds and are airborne. Exposure to it can increase the risk of heart and respiratory disease, asthma, and emphysema. Therefore, proper waste disposal or waste management requires moving waste to areas where it can be safely abandoned, incinerated, or disposed of. Removing debris from common areas helps reduce overall health risks, reduce exposure to biohazards, and reduce pest infestations.
It can be seen that reducing waste can help reduce spending on raw materials, office supplies, equipment and other purchases. Streamlining operations to reduce waste can also increase overall competitiveness and productivity. In addition, measures to reduce waste can help to demonstrate environmental awareness and increase customer loyalty. Many companies plan waste reduction strategies for long-term business success. Waste reduction slows the depletion of natural resources, helps reduce pollution associated with the extraction of raw materials and manufactured products, and conserves valuable landfill space. Some waste reduction efforts also serve to reduce hazardous components in solid waste.
In summary, waste management is the process of treating solid waste and offers numerous solutions for the recycling of elements that do not belong to scrap metal. It is about how waste can be used as a valuable resource. The waste management process must be taken over by the entrepreneur worldwide. Waste management has the products and substances that the company has used safely and efficiently. Waste management is critical to reducing the organization's impact on the environment. It is also a primary requirement to achieve efficient cost savings and better financial returns for trading. Out of concern for the environment, pioneering companies are incorporating waste reduction standards into their day-to-day operations. Waste reduction includes all measures taken to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of waste that needs to be disposed of. It includes waste prevention, recycling, composting, and buying and manufacturing goods that have recycled ingredients or produce less waste.